The main measures for diabetes mellitus are aimed at creating an adequate ratio between absorbed carbohydrates, physical activity and the amount of insulin injected (or glucose-lowering tablets).
Diet therapy – reducing carbohydrate intake, controlling the amount of carbohydrate food consumed. It is an auxiliary method and is effective only in combination with drug treatment.
Physical activity – ensuring an adequate regime of work and rest, ensuring a decrease in body weight to the optimum for a given person, control of energy consumption and energy consumption.
Insulin replacement therapy – the selection of the baseline level of prolonged insulin and the relief of rises in blood glucose after meals with the help of short-acting and ultra-short-acting insulins.
Drug therapy for patients with type II diabetes includes a large group of drugs that are selected and prescribed by a doctor.
A patient with diabetes mellitus needs constant monitoring of vital signs.
Determination of blood sugar must be done for type 1 diabetes: once a week in the morning. If necessary, during the day: before each meal and 2 hours after meals, early in the morning and at night.
In type 2 diabetes, it is sufficient to take measurements several times a month at different times of the day. If you feel unwell – more often.
For convenience, keep a diary in which you record not only the blood sugar readings, time and date, but also the doses of medications taken and the diet.
A more accurate and modern method is carried out with a glucometer. It is enough to place a drop of blood on a disposable indicator plate attached to the glucose oxidase biosensor apparatus, and after a few seconds the level of glucose in the blood is known (glycemia).
Body weight changes. It is necessary to weigh the patient daily to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and calculate the dosage of insulin.
Determination of sugar content in urine. The measurement is carried out with test strips. For analysis, either urine collected per day or a half-hour portion is used (after urinating into the toilet, you need to drink a glass of water and after half an hour urinate into a container for analysis).
The indicator of glycated hemoglobin is carried out once a quarter according to the biochemical blood test.
How to properly administer insulin injections.
A visiting nurse can help give the patient an insulin injection.
If the amount of sugar excreted in the urine per day exceeds 10% of carbohydrates received from food, subcutaneous insulin is prescribed.
If pills and diet are ineffective in type II diabetes, in the event of an exacerbation of the disease or in preparation for surgery, subcutaneous insulin is also prescribed.
Currently, there are a large number of insulin preparations that differ in duration of action (ultrashort, short, medium, prolonged), in the degree of purification (monopic, monocomponent), species specificity (human, porcine, bovine, genetically engineered, etc.)
The doctor may prescribe at the same time or different combinations of two types of insulin preparations: short-acting and intermediate or long-acting.
Typically, a short-acting insulin preparation is given 3 times a day (before breakfast, lunch and dinner). A long-acting insulin preparation – 1 or 2 times a day.
Insulin preparations are dosed in units of IU action or in milliliters 0.1 ml = 4 IU.
Store insulin at room temperature. If your ward keeps it in the refrigerator, then before injection it is necessary to warm the ampoule in his hands.
For injection use:
special insulin syringes, the graduation of which allows you to maintain a dosage of up to 2 units.
pen-syringe – “penfil”, for the administration of a highly concentrated preparation of insulin (penfil, 0.1 ml = 10 units)
insulin pump – a small electronic device that is attached to the patient’s clothing. The pump delivers small doses of insulin through the catheter around the clock. This reduces the risk of nighttime complications, relieves the patient from the need for multiple measurements and injections.