Diabetes mellitus is a group of endocrine diseases that develop as a result of a relative or absolute lack of the hormone insulin or a violation of its interaction with the cells of the body, as a result of which hyperglycemia develops – a persistent increase in blood glucose. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water-salt.
A visiting nurse can help give the patient an insulin injection.
There are two types of diabetes:
- Type 1 is insulin-dependent. The cells of the pancreas stop producing insulin or do not make enough. It is more common in young people, it is difficult, patients lose weight a lot.
- Type 2 – non-insulin dependent. There is insulin, but the sensitivity of body cells to its effect is impaired. More common in overweight older people.
Most people with this disease are active and able to work, but special care may be required if the condition worsens.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the whole organism and has many different complications:
- Vision. More than 50% of diabetics suffer from visual impairment. High blood sugar affects the blood vessels of the eyes, and this changes the fundus. Changes in the state can lead to partial or complete loss of vision – diabetic retinopathy.
- The cardiovascular system. The disease causes damage to the walls of blood vessels, which increases the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke.
- Kidneys. Constant thirst and abundant drinking cause an excessive load on the kidneys, over time, nephropathy occurs.
- Legs. In patients with diabetes mellitus, sensitivity may be impaired. And because of the slowed down blood circulation, even the smallest wounds, abrasions and scratches do not heal well, can be infected and lead to the development of gangrene.
- General state. Due to the reduced body resistance in patients with diabetes mellitus, there is a high risk of various infections (tuberculosis, inflammation of the genitourinary system, etc.)
Insulin injection sites:
- Right and left sides of the abdomen, above or below the waist (avoid the 5cm area around the navel)
- Front and outer thighs (10cm below the buttocks and 10cm above the knee)
- The outside of the arm is above the elbow.
- call an ambulance immediately;
- lay the patient on a flat surface, turn your head to one side;
- monitor your breathing, blood pressure and pulse;
- cannot be forced to eat or drink;
- if possible, make a subcutaneous injection: dissolve 1 mg of glucagon hydrochloride in 1 ml of solvent.
Measure your blood sugar.
Check with the patient when he last injected insulin or drank a pill.
If the ward has frequent and profuse urination, give him water to avoid dehydration.
If the patient develops a coma: complete indifference to what is happening, urinary retention, the smell of acetone (soaked apples) from the mouth, decreased blood pressure, deep noisy breathing (long inhalation and short exhalation), impaired consciousness, call an ambulance immediately.
Introduce a short-acting insulin preparation subcutaneously at the rate of 0.3 U / kg, that is, 15-21 U for a person weighing 70 kg.
Change the injection area every week to avoid scarring and swelling.
Choose different injection points within the same area so as not to injure the skin.
If you need to inject two types of insulin at the same time, use a separate syringe and an injection site for each (you cannot mix them).
If it is possible for the patient to move after the injection, ask him about it. Insulin will enter the bloodstream faster.
Remember that 20-30 minutes after the injection, the ward must eat the amount of food indicated by the doctor.
Emergency help for hypoglycemia.
Give the ward sugar (4-5 pieces dry or in the form of syrup), honey, candy, hot sweet tea, fruit juice, sweet soda. Symptoms should subside in 5-10 minutes.
If the patient has lost consciousness:
After 10-15 minutes, the ward should regain consciousness. If this does not happen, repeat the injection.